The Uluru-Kata Tjuta national park board asked visitors to understand the new rule as upholding a long-held request of the Anangu - indigenous Australians - who felt that they were "intimidated" into allowing climbers to use the rock for recreational purposes.
The traditional landowners, the Anangu, have always refused to climb Uluru and consider it sacred.
Board chairman and Uluru traditional owner Sammy Wilson said in a statement that it was time to close the climb.
"If I travel to another country and there is a sacred site, an area of restricted access, I don't enter or climb it, I respect it".
The latest statistics showed just 16 per cent of tourists climb Uluru, paving the way for the closure.
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Uluru's land title was handed back to its traditional owners in 1985, but was immediately leased to the Australian federal government to be jointly managed as a national park for 99 years. "Let's come together; let's close it together".
The park's 2010-2020 management plan recommended the climb be closed when one of three preconditions was met, including that fewer than 20 per cent of visitors climbed the rock.
While there have been concerns over the ban's impact on tourism, the number of visitors who climb Uluru have steadily dropped, largely thanks to increased awareness and education.
Uluru's traditional owners and National Parks representatives voted to end the practice on Wednesday.
"The path left by rubber from the soles of climbers' shoes is visible from kilometres away and some tourists leave litter and damage the rock".