The Marechaussee police service tweeted the situation was "safe" and noted the suspect had been detained and removed from the scene. 'The man is known to the police in connection with previous violent incidents'.
A video purporting to show the man being carried away on a stretcher has emerged on social media.
There are no reports of any other injuries.
Heavily armed military police, wearing body armor and ski masks, patrolled Schiphol for four hours while the man's bags were checked.
"The man threatened with a knife and the military police shot him", spokesman Stan Verberkt said, according to Sky News.
Volunteers needed to help lay wreaths at Arlington Cemetery
Members of the local society of the Children of the American Revolution will place remembrance wreaths on the headstones. Rolling Thunder, a veterans advocacy group, will lead the event at the veterans section of the cemetery.
Amsterdam airport has been evacuated amid a bomb scare, reportedly one person has been arrested.
Schiphol Plaza, the airport's shopping area, was evacuated straight after the incident but has now been re-opened.
No details of the alleged attacker's condition were released.
The airport terminal was also momentarily evacuated, while trains to and from Schiphol were cancelled, local media reported. A spokesman for the Dutch police said: "the circumstances are telling us that it has nothing to do with terrorism". Air traffic has not been affected.